The first known record of The Gambia is a brief reference in the account by Hanno the Carthaginian of his voyage through West Africa around 470BC. During the 5th and 8th centuries AD most of the Sene-Gambian area was part of the Empire of Ghana, whose rulers were of the Serahuli tribe. In the centuries to follow, tribes of Mandingoes and Susus from the Fouta Djalon Plateau of Guinea established themselves in what is now known as Mali.
Charles II, King of England founded the Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa whose main objective was to purchase slaves for the West Indian and American plantations. In 1661 the company captured St. Andrew's Island in the River Gambia, renaming it James Island, built a fort on it and founded the first English settlement on the West African Coast.
During the 18th and 19th centuries there was bitter and protracted religious dissension, cutting across tribal loyalties. One consequence of the strife was that various chiefs sought treaty protection from the British established at Banjul, so British administration gradually spread over the whole country, the last such treaty being concluded in 1901 with Musa Molloh, Chief of Fulladu.
American author Alex Haley highlighted the slave trade from this area in his best selling book "Roots", also adapted for a TV mini series, as he traced his roots back to the banks of the River Gambia; today tourists can travel up river on an excursion to some of the landmarks. The 'Roots Homecoming Festival' held during June is a celebration of Gambian culture through music, dance, arts and crafts.
The oldest English speaking country in West Africa, The Gambia gained independence from Britain in 1965, led by Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara, first President of the Republic of The Gambia. In 1977 he opened the 250 acre Abuko Nature Reserve, affirming with The Banjul Declaration his intention to protect and preserve the flora and fauna of The Gambia for future generations.
In 1990 the country celebrated its 25th anniversary of peace and stability. A bloodless coup took place in July 1994, and an Interim government was installed. Elections have since returned The Gambia to democracy and the country has remained calm and peaceful throughout. Under the leadership of the President, His Excellency Alhagie Dr Yahya A JJ Jammeh, the country has seen a renewed sense of purpose, energy and drive for improvement. In November 2011 Jammeh won the election to return as President for a fourth five year term.